How Estate Planning Attorneys Handle Digital Assets

In an increasingly digital world, the assets that individuals accumulate over a lifetime extend far beyond physical property and traditional financial accounts. Digital assets encompass a wide range of online accounts, digital currencies, and intellectual property stored in digital form.

Estate planning attorneys play a crucial role in ensuring that these digital assets are properly managed and transferred upon an individual’s death or incapacitation. This article explores how estate planning attorneys handle digital assets, the challenges they face, and the strategies they employ to secure and distribute these assets effectively.

Understanding Digital Assets

Digital assets can be broadly categorized into several types.

  1. Personal Digital Assets: These include social media accounts (such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter), email accounts, digital photos, videos, and documents stored in the cloud or on personal devices.
  2. Financial Digital Assets: This category includes online banking accounts, digital wallets, cryptocurrency holdings (such as Bitcoin, Ethereum), and accounts on financial platforms like PayPal and Venmo.
  3. Business Digital Assets: For entrepreneurs and business owners, digital assets might include domain names, websites, client databases, and digital marketing tools.
  4. Intellectual Property: This includes copyrights, trademarks, patents, and digital products like eBooks, music, and software.

The Importance of Estate Planning for Digital Assets

Accessibility and Control

Without proper planning, heirs and executors might face significant challenges in accessing digital assets. Many digital platforms have strict privacy policies and terms of service agreements that can complicate the transfer of ownership after the account holder’s death. 

An estate planning attorney can ensure that trusted individuals have the necessary authorization and instructions to manage or close these accounts, preventing potential legal and logistical issues.

Value Preservation

Digital assets can have significant monetary value. Cryptocurrencies, for instance, are highly volatile and require careful management. Without clear instructions, these assets can be lost or mismanaged, leading to financial losses. Proper estate planning helps preserve the value of digital assets and ensures they are transferred to beneficiaries efficiently.

Personal and Emotional Significance

Personal digital assets, such as family photos and videos, hold emotional value. Estate planning ensures that these sentimental items are preserved and accessible to loved ones. It also allows individuals to specify their wishes regarding the management of their online presence and digital legacy.

Legal Framework for Digital Assets

State and Federal Laws

The legal framework surrounding digital assets is evolving. In the United States, the Revised Uniform Fiduciary Access to Digital Assets Act (RUFADAA) provides a legal basis for fiduciaries to access digital assets. However, the implementation of this law varies by state, and not all digital platforms comply uniformly.

Terms of Service Agreements

Each digital platform has its own terms of service agreements, which can impact the transfer and access of digital assets. Some platforms have policies in place for memorializing or deleting accounts upon notification of the account holder’s death, while others may require court orders for access.

Role of Estate Planning Attorneys

Identifying Digital Assets

The first step in handling digital assets is identifying them. Estate planning attorneys work with clients to create an inventory of all digital assets. This includes listing account details, login credentials, and any associated passwords or security keys. A comprehensive inventory is crucial for ensuring no asset is overlooked.

Drafting Legal Documents

To effectively manage digital assets, estate planning attorneys draft specific legal documents, including:

  1. Wills: A will can include provisions for digital assets, such as instructions for transferring ownership, closing accounts, or memorializing social media profiles.
  2. Trusts: Trusts can be used to manage digital assets, especially those with significant financial value like cryptocurrencies. A trust provides flexibility and can include detailed instructions for managing these assets.
  3. Power of Attorney: A durable power of attorney grants a trusted individual the authority to manage digital assets if the account holder becomes incapacitated. This document is crucial for ensuring continuity and preventing loss or mismanagement.
  4. Digital Asset Authorization: Some platforms require specific authorization forms that grant fiduciaries access to digital accounts. Estate planning attorneys ensure these forms are completed and properly executed.

Coordinating with Fiduciaries

Estate planning attorneys coordinate with fiduciaries, such as executors and trustees, to ensure they understand their responsibilities regarding digital assets. This includes providing guidance on how to access, manage, and transfer these assets in accordance with the client’s wishes and legal requirements.

Challenges in Managing Digital Assets

Privacy and Security Concerns

Digital assets are vulnerable to hacking and unauthorized access. Estate planning attorneys must balance the need for accessibility with robust security measures to protect these assets. This involves advising clients on secure methods for storing and sharing account information.

Rapid Technological Changes

The digital landscape is constantly evolving, with new platforms and technologies emerging regularly. Estate planning attorneys must stay informed about these changes to ensure their strategies remain effective and up-to-date. This includes understanding the latest developments in blockchain technology and cryptocurrency management.

Legal Ambiguities

The legal framework for digital assets is still developing, and ambiguities remain. Estate planning attorneys must navigate these uncertainties and anticipate potential legal challenges. This requires a thorough understanding of both state and federal laws, as well as the terms of service for various digital platforms.

Best Practices for Handling Digital Assets

Regular Updates

Given the dynamic nature of digital assets, it’s essential to review and update estate plans regularly. Estate planning attorneys work with clients to ensure their digital asset inventory, account information, and legal documents are current and reflect any changes in the client’s digital footprint.

Clear Instructions

Providing clear and detailed instructions for fiduciaries is crucial. Estate planning attorneys help clients articulate their wishes regarding the management, transfer, or deletion of digital assets. This minimizes confusion and ensures that fiduciaries can carry out their duties effectively.

Use of Digital Tools

There are various digital tools and platforms designed to help manage digital assets. These include password managers, digital vaults, and online estate planning services. Estate planning attorneys can recommend and help clients use these tools to streamline the management and transfer of digital assets.


As digital assets become an integral part of modern life, estate planning attorneys play a crucial role in managing and transferring these assets. By understanding the complexities involved and employing effective strategies, attorneys help clients preserve the value of their digital assets and ensure their wishes are honored. 

With the right planning, digital assets can be seamlessly integrated into an overall estate plan, providing peace of mind and security for individuals and their families.

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